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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 237-242

Screening of β-thalassemia carriers in high school students in Shebin El-Kom, Menoufia Governorate


1 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt
2 Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt
3 Department of Pediatrics, Shebin El-Kom Chest Hospital, Menoufia, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Randa A.E. Ibrahim
Department of Pediatrics, Shebin El-Kom Chest Hospital, Menoufia
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mmj.mmj_358_19

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Objective To identify the prevalence of β-thalassemia carriers among secondary school children for the prevention program of β-thalassemia and to update carrier rate data in Menoufia Governorate. Background β-thalassemia is the most prevalent hereditary disorder and is particularly prevalent among the Mediterranean people, and this geographical association is responsible for its naming. Patients and methods This study was conducted on 303 high school students aged 15–18 years from Shebin El-Kom, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt (62% women and 38% men). They were subjected to full history taking and clinical examination. Laboratory investigation included complete blood count, and serum ferritin level. High-performance liquid chromatography was done for samples with normal or high serum ferritin level. Results The overall prevalence of anemia among the studied students was 38%. Microcytic type was the most common and represented 57% of anemic students. Men have higher mean hemoglobin values than women in different age groups. Three (1%) students of the total studied students were diagnosed to have the β-thalassemia trait. Moreover, there was a significant difference in ferritin level between β-thalassemia carriers and students diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. The mean value of hemoglobin A2 in students with β-thalassemia trait was 5.56 ± 0.42%. Conclusion The prevalence of β-thalassemia carriers in high schools was about 1%. A full blood count with microcytosis, together with normal or high serum ferritin level, and hemoglobin A2 more than 3.5% were considered enough for the identification of β-thalassemia carriers in a screening process.


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