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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1410-1417

Anxiety, depression, and commitment to infection control measures among Egyptians during COVID-19 pandemic

1 Department of Family Medicine, Menoufia Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia, Egypt
2 Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Menoufia Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Zeinab A Kasemy
Gamal Abdel Nasser Street, 5th Floor, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Shibin Elkom, Menoufia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mmj.mmj_245_20

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Objective The aim was to evaluate anxiety and depression among Egyptians during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, its associated factors, and public commitment to infection control measures. Background COVID-19 pandemic may be stressful for people. Fear and anxiety regarding a new disease can be overwhelming. Participants and methods A prospective study was conducted on 1080 Egyptians using four questionnaires: first, sociodemographic data and hearing about COVID-19; second, generalized anxiety disorders questionnaire; third, patient health questionnaire; and fourth, commitment to infection control measures during this epidemic. These questionnaires were applied twice, with 2 months apart, from March to May 2020. Results Participants' age ranged from 15 to 50 (29.98 ± 7.95) years, with female sex predominance. Approximately 98.9% of the participants had heard about COVID-19 and 83.3% of them followed up the daily report of new cases and deaths. Prevalence of anxiety was 61.7%, whereas depression was 54.1%, and mixed depression-anxiety represented 33.3% of the participants. Anxiety and depression were significantly higher among participants who are highly educated, working, of lower socioeconomic status, and of urban residency. Moderate to severe anxiety toward COVID-19 declined with time from 24.4 to 18.6%, whereas severity of depression was increased among participants from 29.4 to 44.1% with time (P < 0.001). Commitment to infection control measures declined with time (P < 0.001). Conclusion Anxiety and depression were higher among public during COVID-19 pandemic. Female sex, being married, urban residency, and following up daily report about cases and deaths of COVID-19 were the likelihood associated factors. With time, anxiety and fear owing to pandemic may be reduced as well as people's commitment to infection control measures, whereas depression may increase among public owing to longevity of pandemic and its social and financial consequences.

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