|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 354-364
Assessment of Echinacea purpurea and mefloquine in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni
Wafaa M El-kersh1, Azza H Mohamed2, Amany A Rady1, Ismail M Moharm1, Ahmed S Mahdy1
1 Medical Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt
2 Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Egypt
|Date of Submission||28-Feb-2016|
|Date of Acceptance||03-May-2016|
|Date of Web Publication||14-Jun-2018|
Ahmed S Mahdy
Medical Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
To assess the effect of combined Echinacea purpurea (EP) and mefloquine (MQ) in the treatment of experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection.
Schistosomiasis is a prevalent parasitic disease in tropical and subtropical areas caused by the flatworm S. mansoni. Several medications are used in the treatment of schistosomiasis. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice because of its safety and broad-spectrum activity.
Materials and methods
The current study was carried out on 120 laboratory-bred Swiss albino female mice. They were classified into six groups: group I (control), group II (PZQ treated), group III (MQ treated), group IV (EP treated), group V (PZQ and EP), and group VI (MQ and EP). Evaluation was done parasitologically using the worm count technique, ova count technique in intestine and liver, and oogram pattern and histopathological examination of liver sections for assessment of granuloma size and diameter. Moreover, electron microscopic changes of the adult worms were evaluated.
The highest worm burden reduction of male (79.41%), female (82.28%), couples (86.6%), and total (92%) worms was obtained in the combined MQ and EP treated group. The highest reduction in the mean number of ova count/g tissue in either the intestine (93%) or the liver (89%) was detected in MQ and EP treated group. In combined treated groups, the highest percentage of reduction in the immature and mature eggs was detected in the group MQ and EP; it was 9.16 ± 4.11 and 5.25 ± 2.56, respectively. Moreover, there was an increase in the percentage of dead eggs (85.58 ± 6.43). The highest reductions in hepatic granuloma diameter and number were seen in the combination of MQ and EP at 67 and 85%, respectively (P < 0.001). The scanning electron microscopy examination revealed that the tegument of male worms recovered from MQ-treated mice showed loss of spines, severe corrugation, and extensive blebbing, whereas the tegument of the adult males recovered from mice treated with EP showed flattening of tubercles, loss of spines, and extensive blebbing with start of sloughing.
MQ has effective schistosomicidal properties through reduction of worm burden and tissue egg load. Moreover, EP extract showed promising antischistosomal activity on S. mansoni-infected mice. It is recommended to study the exact mechanism of action of EP on S. mansoni and its possible effects on other parasitic infections.
Keywords: Echinacea purpurea, mefloquine, scanning electron microscopy, Schistosoma mansoni
|How to cite this article:|
El-kersh WM, Mohamed AH, Rady AA, Moharm IM, Mahdy AS. Assessment of Echinacea purpurea and mefloquine in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni. Menoufia Med J 2018;31:354-64
|How to cite this URL:|
El-kersh WM, Mohamed AH, Rady AA, Moharm IM, Mahdy AS. Assessment of Echinacea purpurea and mefloquine in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni. Menoufia Med J [serial online] 2018 [cited 2021 Apr 23];31:354-64. Available from: http://www.mmj.eg.net/text.asp?2018/31/1/354/234262
| Introduction|| |
Schistosomiasis is a prevalent parasitic disease in tropical and subtropical areas, which accounts for the second place in terms of socioeconomic and public health burden ,. Pathology associated with Schistosoma mansoni results primarily from the accumulation of parasite eggs giving rise to hepatomegaly that may be superseded by extensive liver fibrosis . Each year schistosomiasis afflicts up to 600 million people in 74 tropical and subtropical countries; of whom, more than 30 million experience associated severe morbidity, causing 155 000 deaths annually, predominantly in the developing world .
Several medications are used in the treatment of schistosomiasis, including praziquantel (PZQ), oxamniquine, metrifonate, and antimonials. Current treatment relies on PZQ . The PZQ has stage-dependent susceptibility. It targets the adult worm but has only minor activity against the young immature developing stages (schistosomula) ,. The PZQ was involved in the global control programs as well as morbidity control strategy, which has greatly reduced the prevalence and intensity of infections ,. It is quite safe and effective with a single oral dose, producing high cure rate ranging between 60 and 90% in addition to drastic reduction in the number of excreted Schistosoma eggs . The widespread use of PZQ has led to a considerable concern over the emergence of strains of S. mansoni resistant to PZQ . So for controlling schistosomiasis, there is an urgent need to develop a new effective drug.
Over the past few years, the antimalarial drug mefloquine (MQ) was investigated for its schistosomicidal effect and evidenced a reduction in egg burden in S. mansoni-infected mice following its administration . It is a methanol-quinoline drug. As a blood schizonticide, it is very effective against P. falciparum and other Plasmodia infections in malarial endemic areas; it is used for treatment as well as prophylaxis against malaria . MQ also showed high activity against S. japonicum  and S. haematobium , which highlights a promising broad-spectrum antischistosomal effect.
Plants are an important source of biologically active compounds that can provide components for the development of new drugs . Therefore, examples such as Zingiber officinale , Piper cubeta , Curcuma longa , and Solanum lycocarpum  have been studied as natural products with schistosomicidal activity.
Echinacea purpurea (EP) is a perennial medicinal herb with important immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, especially for the alleviation of cold symptoms. Other biological activities of the plant, such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and larvicidal activities, have been reported in previous experimental studies. Different classes of secondary metabolites of the plant, such as alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, and glycoprotein, are believed to be biologically and pharmacologically active .
There are numerous in-vivo studies on the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of EP, which suggest that innate immunity is enhanced by administration of the plant and that the immune system is strengthened against pathogenic infections through activation of the neutrophils, macrophages, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and natural killer cells .
The aim of the present work was designed to evaluate the combined treatment with MQ and EP in experimental S. mansoni infection in-vivo versus PZQ. Drug evaluation was done parasitologically and histopathologically in addition to studying electron microscopic changes of the adult worms.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Parasites and experimental infection with Schistosoma mansoni
Cercariae of S. mansoni (Egyptian strain) were obtained from infected Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, which were reared and maintained at Schistosome Biological Supply Program, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt. Infection was done by tail immersion technique using freshly shed cercariae in a dose of 70 ± 5 cercariae/mouse according to Liang et al. .
This study was conducted on 120 laboratory Swiss albino female mice strain CD1. They were clean from parasitic infection, weighed 20–25 g at the beginning of the experiment, and were of similar age (3–5 weeks). Animals were fed on a standard diet composed of ∼24% proteins, 4% fat, and ∼4.5% fiber .
Mice were classified into six groups: group I (control group), which was subdivided into subgroups a, b, c, d, e, f, and g of 10 mice each; group II (PZQ treated) with 10 mice; group III (MQ treated) with 10 mice; group IV (EP treated) with 10 mice; group V (combined treated with PZQ and EP) with 10 mice; and group VI (combined treated with MQ and EP) with 10 mice.
Group I (control groups)
- Ia: none infected and untreated (control negative)
- Ib: infected and untreated (control positive)
- Ic: none infected and treated with PZQ (drug control 1)
- Id: none infected and treated with MQ (drug control 2)
- Ie: none infected and treated with EP (drug control 3)
- If: none infected and combined treated with PZQ and EP
- Ig: none infected and combined treated with MQ and EP.
Group II (praziquantel treated)
This group was S. mansoni infected and treated with PZQ, where mice were infected and treated with PZQ at a dose of 500 mg/kg given at two equal divided doses for 2 successive days orally at 6 weeks after infection .
Group III (mefloquine treated)
This group was S. mansoni infected and treated with MQ, where mice were infected and treated with MQ at a single full dose of 400 mg/kg given once at 6 weeks after infection ,.
Group IV (Echinacea purpurea treated)
This group was S. mansoni infected and treated with EP, where mice were infected and then treated with EP given orally. It was provided as immulant syrup at a dose of 0.125 mg/kg at 6 weeks after infection and daily for 2 weeks .
Group V (drug combination)
This group was S. mansoni infected and treated with PZQ and EP. Infected mice were treated with a combination of PZQ, at a dose of 500 mg/kg given at two divided doses for 2 successive days orally at 6 weeks after infection , and EP, which was given orally at dose of 0.125 mg/kg at 6 weeks after infection and daily for 2 weeks .
Group VI (drug combination)
This group was S. mansoni infected and treated with MQ and EP. Infected mice were treated with a combination of MQ at a single full dose of 400 mg/kg given once at 6 weeks after infection , and EP that was given orally at dose of 0.125 mg/kg at 6 weeks after infection and daily for 2 weeks .
Drug preparation and dose adjustment
Distocide was obtained from Egyptian International Pharmaceutical Industries Company. Each tablet contains 600 mg. PZQ was administered orally as a suspension after fresh preparation in 2% cremophore EL . The mice were administered at a dose of 500 mg/kg given at two divided doses for 2 successive days at 6 weeks after infection.
Mephaquin, as 250 mg tablets, was kindly provided by Mepha-La Roche (Basel, Switzerland). It was suspended in 7% Tween-80 and 3% alcohol. MQ was administered orally to mice at a single full dose of 400 mg/kg ,.
EP was provided as immulant syrup 120 ml by Arab Company for Pharmaceuticals and Medicinal Plants (Sharkeya, Egypt) for the treatment of infected group at dose of 0.125 mg/kg .
Mice of all experimental groups were killed at 8 weeks after infection.
Study of parasitological criteria
S. mansoni worm burden load
Hepatic and portomesenteric vessels were perfused. Following perfusion, numbers and sex of the adult worms (males, females, and couples) were determined. They were counted by either direct visualization or under dissecting microscope . The reduction percentage in worm numbers, after treatment, was calculated according to Tendler et al.  to recover worms for subsequent counting.
Tissue egg load
The number of eggs per gram of tissue was estimated by weighing a piece of liver or small intestine, which was then digested and incubated overnight in 5% KOH. The hepatic and intestinal tissue egg loads were determined by multiplying the average number of eggs in each 1 ml sample by the total volume of KOH and then dividing that value by the weight of the sample to yield the number of eggs per gram of tissue ,.
After perfusion, the small intestine of each mouse was separated and transferred to a Petri dish More Details. Three fragments (each is 1 cm in length) of the small intestine were cut longitudinally, rinsed in saline, and slightly dried on filter paper. Then, the fragments were examined by the low-power microscopy and the percentages of immature, mature, and dead eggs were counted from a total of 100 eggs per each intestinal segment. They were classified according to the categories previously defined by Pellegrino et al. . The mean percentage of each stage/animal and then the mean percentage of each stage/each group of animals were calculated.
Liver was removed from all mice of all groups, washed by normal saline 0.9, and plotted with filter paper. Liver specimens were fixed at 10% buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin blocks. The prepared 4-μm-thick sections were examined by light microscopy using hematoxylin and eosin stains. Hepatic granuloma morphometries and granuloma diameter measurement were performed by microscopic magnification of ×200 using an ocular micrometer. The mean diameter of each granuloma was calculated by measuring two diameters of the lesion at right angles to each other. The granulomas were counted in five successive fields of each examined slide. The mean number of granulomas of each group was calculated from the mean values of each individual mouse of that group. Only nonconfluent, lobular granulomas containing eggs in their centers were measured .
Scanning electron microscopy examination
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination was performed for adult males and females recovered from the study in accordance with Hassan et al. , to determine the extent of damage on the surface of treated worms in comparison with the untreated worms.
Adult male worms of S. mansoni perfused from the hepatic and portomesenteric vessels of infected mice were collected in glutaraldehyde buffer solution (25%) as a fixative overnight at 4°C. They were then washed out of any of the fixative by keeping them overnight at 4°C in phosphate buffer and then passed into rising concentrations of alcohol (30, 40, and 50%), each for 15 min, and kept in 70% alcohol until the time of examination. Before examination, they were washed twice for 30 min in 80 and 90% alcohol, correspondingly. The last wash was for one hour in 100% alcohol. Worms were then mounted on stainless steel holders and put in a drier for ∼30 min and then subjected to sputter coat of gold; the different parts of worms were examined using Joel JEM-1200 SEM, provided with a camera fitted to it. Areas in the worms that showed specific changes were examined and photographed, mainly the tubercles on the tegument.
The collected data were collected, tabulated, and statistically analyzed by statistical package for the social sciences (version 20, (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA)). Two types of statistics were done.
Descriptive statistics included percentage, mean, and SD.
Analytical statistics included analysis of variance 'f' test, Kruskal–Wallis test, post-hoc test, and P value as a test of significance.
P value was considered significant if it was less than 0.05, highly significant if P value less than 0.001, and nonsignificant if P more than 0.05.
| Results|| |
Effect of tested drugs on worm burden in different treated groups
The results revealed a highly significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the mean number of male, female, coupled, and total worms in all infected treated groups when compared with infected control group [Table 1]. The highest reduction rates of worm burden for male (79.41%), female (82.28%), couples (86.6%), and total (92%) worms were obtained in group VI (MQ and EP).
|Table 1: Effect of tested drugs on the worm burden of different treated groups|
Click here to view
Effect of tested drugs on the tissue egg load of different groups
There was a highly significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the mean number of ova count/g tissue in either the intestine or the liver in all treated groups compared with infected control group [Table 2] and [Table 3]. The high reduction rates were detected in group V (EP combination treatment with PZQ) and group VI (EP combination treatment with MQ) in the intestine (87 and 93%, respectively) and in the liver (81 and 89%, respectively).
|Table 2: Effect of tested drugs on tissue egg load (intestine) of different groups|
Click here to view
|Table 3: Effect of tested drugs on tissue egg load (liver) of different groups|
Click here to view
Effect of tested drugs on oogram pattern in different groups
Regarding the oogram pattern, [Table 4] demonstrated a highly significant decrease in the percentage of immature and mature eggs and increase in the percentage of dead eggs in all treated groups in comparison with the infected control group (P < 0.001).
High reduction in the percentage of immature and mature eggs was detected in EP combined treated groups (EP with MQ = 9.16 ± 4.11 and 5.25 ± 2.56, respectively, and EP with PZQ = 20.80 ± 3.58 and 8.70 ± 2.35, respectively). Moreover, there was a significant increase in the percentage of dead eggs in groups V and VI at 70.50 ± 3.74 and 85.58 ± 6.43, respectively.
Effect of tested drugs on the hepatic granulomas number and diameter of different groups
The results showed a highly significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the hepatic granuloma numbers and diameters in different treated groups compared with the infected control group Ib [Table 5].
|Table 5: Effect of tested drugs on the hepatic granuloma number and diameter of different groups|
Click here to view
The maximum reduction of the mean of the granuloma number and diameter was reported in group VI (MQ and EP), which gave a mean of 1.6 ± 0.4 and 85% and 25.6 ± 6.1 and 91% reduction percentages, respectively [Figure 1]a and [Figure 1]b.
Hepatic granuloma morphometries
Microscopic examination of stained liver sections (hematoxylin and eosin) of infected control nontreated group Ib mice showed typical large fibrocellular granuloma surrounding living ovum including miracidium and surrounded by lymphocytes, eosinophils, polymorphonuclear cells, epithelioid cells, and fibrous tissues [Figure 2]a.
|Figure 2: Photomicrograph of liver sections. (a) Infected liver exhibiting large granuloma with excess inflammatory cells and central schistosome egg; (b) praziquantel (PZQ)-treated liver, showing medium-sized fibrocellular (arrow shows) granuloma surrounding intact Schistosoma (S.) mansoni ovum; (c) mefloquine (MQ)-treated group showing small sized fibrocellular (arrow shows) granuloma devoid of S. mansoni ova; (d) Echinacea purpurea (EP) extract = treated liver, showing large sized fibrocellular (arrow shows) granuloma with two degenerated S. mansoni ova; (e) PZQ and EP treated group, showing small-sized fibrocellular (arrow shows) granuloma surrounding intact S. mansoni ovum; (f) MQ and EP treated group, showing restoration of liver lobules and normal hepatic architecture, where the central vein (Cv) lies at the center of the lobule surrounded by the hepatocytes (Hc) and mild lymphocytic infiltration (hematoxylin and eosin, ×200).|
Click here to view
Treatment with PZQ or MQ alone reduced the size of the granuloma. It was well-demarcated and circumscribed fibrocellular with central intact ovum in PZQ treated group and dead degenerated miracidium in MQ treated group and surrounded by lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, epithelioid cells, and collagen bundles. In EP, liver sections showed large-sized fibrocellular granuloma with degenerated ova and heavily inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, eosinophils, epithelioid cells, and collagen bundles) [Figure 2]b, [Figure 2]c, [Figure 2]d. In combined treated mice in groups V and VI, liver section showed marked reduction in the size of the granuloma; they were well defined, surrounding either living or dead egg with few inflammatory cells scattered in between lymphocytes. However, with group VI treatment, liver sections showed restoration of the normal liver architecture, sparsely scattered inflammatory cells with normal central vein and hepatocytes [Figure 2]e and [Figure 2]f.
Results of scanning electron microscopic observations
SEM revealed that the tegument of adult male worm recovered from control nontreated group showed numerous large tubercles with numerous intact spines on the top of tubercles [Figure 3]a, and tegumental surface of untreated S. mansoni females showed normal surface with intact spines [Figure 3]b. The extracted adult worms from PZQ treated group showed alteration of tegument, loss of intertubercular ridges, and surface blebbing [Figure 3]c. The tegumental surface of treated adult S. mansoni males with MQ showed loss of intertubercular ridges, loss of spines, severe corrugation, and extensive blebbing, whereas female worm showed furrowing, loss of spines, poring, fissuring, and cracking of its surface [Figure 3]d and [Figure 4]a. In group treated with EP (group IV), the tegumental surface of adult males showed flattening of tubercles, loss of spines, loss of intertubercular ridges, extensive blebbing, and starting of the sloughing of the tegument [Figure 4]b. In combined treatment (PZQ and EP), the tegumental changes were marked, severe, and progressive in the form of distortion of tubercles, blebbing, loss of spines, swelling of the surface, and loss of intertubercular ridges. In the same manner, MQ and EP treated group showed more advanced changes, including poring, cracking, furrowing, and sloughing [Figure 4]c and [Figure 4]d.
|Figure 3: Scanning electron micrograph of (a) adult Schistosoma (S.) mansoni male worm tegument of control positive group showing normal tubercles (t), spines (black arrow), sensory organelles (So), and intertubercular ridges (r) (×1000); (b) S. mansoni female worm tegument of control positive group showing normal tegument and intact spines (black arrows) (×2000); (c) praziquantel-treated group showing distorted tubercles (white arrow) and loss of intertubercular ridges (blue arrow) with surface blebbing (yellow arrows) (×1000); (d) mefloquine-treated group showing distortion of tubercles, loss of spines (white arrows), and loss of intertubercular ridges (blue arrow) (×1000).|
Click here to view
|Figure 4: Scanning electron micrograph of (a) adult Schistosoma (S.) mansoni female worm tegument of mefloquine (MQ)-treated group showing furrowing, loss of spines, poring (yellow arrows), and cracking of its surface (white arrow) (×1000); (b) adult S. mansoni male worm tegument of Echinacea purpurea (EP)-treated group showing flattening of tubercles (white arrows), spines, and loss of intertubercular ridges (blue arrows) with sloughing (yellow arrow) (×1000); (c) adult S. mansoni male worm tegument of praziquantel and EP showing distortion of tubercles (white arrow), loss of spines, and loss of intertubercular ridges (blue arrow) with surface blebbing (yellow arrows) (×1000); (d) adult S. mansoni male worm tegument of MQ and EP group showing distortion of tubercles (while arrow), loss of spines (yellow arrows), poring, and blebbing of surface (red arrows) (×1000).|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease, endemic in 76 countries, that affects more than 240 million people . Schistosomiasis chemotherapy depends on a single drug, PZQ, which was employed for treatment of infections caused by all Schistosoma spp. . So, there is an urgent need to develop a new antischistosomal drug. New research has shown that MQ exhibits antischistosomal properties ,. This was reported for S. mansoni  and S. japonicum .
PZQ given at a dose of 500 mg/kg caused pronounced significant curative effects where the mean number of adult male, female, couples, and total worms was 67.64, 57.14, 66.42, and 68.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). Higher reduction rates were obtained by Abdel-Fattah and Ahmed  and El-Lakkany et al.  who have documented that PZQ at a dose of 500 and 1000 mg/kg at 6 weeks after infection caused a reduction in the total numbers of males by 82.6 and 96.6%, respectively. This difference could be attributed to different drug dose.
The results of the current study revealed that MQ given at dose of 400 mg/kg achieved a significant reduction in the number of perfused adult male, female, couple, and total worms (76.47, 80, 82.14, and 88.08%, respectively) (P < 0.001). These results were nearly similar to those of Selem and Eraky  who reported that MQ given at a single oral dose of 200 mg/kg for treatment of S. haematobium-infected hamsters 49 days after infection resulted in considerable worm burden reductions of 75.9, 69.6, and 88.6% for male, female, and coupled worms, respectively. On the contrary, Abdel-Fattah and Ahmed  reported that MQ monotherapy in its full dose (400 mg/kg) at 6 weeks after infection eradicated adult male and female worms (100%). The deaths of the Schistosoma worms could be attributed to the metabolic disorders, mechanical destruction, and muscular contraction of the treated worms .
The results of the present study demonstrated that oral administration of EP or its combination with MQ or PZQ to infected mice was significantly effective in reducing worm burden and egg count, indicating their effective antischistosomal action. EP at a dose of 0.125 mg/kg caused a significant reduction in the mean numbers of male, female, couple, and total worms (41.17, 42.85, 41.07, and 40.64%, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the therapeutic effects of EP on S. mansoni in experimentally infected mice either alone or in combination with PZQ and MQ.
In consonance, Canlas et al.  reported the effect of Echinacea on trypanosomatid parasite. The results showed slowed or eliminated motility and rounding of both Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma brucei at high concentrations and explained that the anti-inflammatory effect of Echinacea negatively affects proliferation by killing the parasites which could be explained either by stimulation of apoptosis or necrosis and/or through growth inhibition. The antischistosomal effect of EP may be attributed to its antioxidant activity that enhances the immunity of the host to attack the parasite and thereby reduce infection and morbidity and protect the mice from pathogens to a certain level .
Concerning the tissue egg load, the highest reduction rate was obtained by combined MQ and EP (93 and 89% for liver and intestine, respectively). Moreover, MQ and combined PZQ and EP showed significant reduction in tissue egg load (88 and 87%, respectively, for intestine and 86 and 81%, respectively, for liver) (P < 0.001). However, PZQ showed significant reduction in tissue egg load by 84 and 78% in the intestine and liver respectively (P < 0.001).
These results were in agreement with the reports of Fahmy et al. , who stated that administration of MQ at a dose of 400 mg/kg at day 35 after infection caused significant reduction in tissue egg loads in intestine and liver by 93.9 and 94.3%, respectively. The reduction of the tissue egg load was attributed to the reduction that occurred in the worm load. Moreover, Botros et al. found that PZQ reduced the hepatic and intestinal tissue egg loads significantly by 60 and 90%, respectively.
In contrary to our results, Selem and Eraky  reported that the effect of MQ treatment 82 days after infection revealed an insignificant egg load reduction rate in the liver (41.6%) and intestine (29%).
The results of the current work revealed that administration of EP caused significant reduction in the tissue egg load of intestine by 35% and liver by 46% (P < 0.001). These results might be attributed to the significant reduction in the worm burden of male, female, and couple worms produced by EP irrespective the mode of drug action.
The current study showed the effect of administration of different treatment on oogram pattern changes, where a significant reduction in immature (9.16 ± 4.11 and 15.2 ± 4.96) and mature (5.25 ± 2.56 and 6.30 ± 1.33) eggs and an increase in dead eggs (85.58 ± 6.43 and 78.50 ± 4.92) were reported by either MQ and EP or MQ alone (P < 0.001). These results were higher than reported by Selem and Eraky  that showed decrease of immature eggs (30.8 ± 7.8) and increase of dead eggs (8.4 ± 2.2) and mature eggs (40.6 ± 10.2) compared with infected untreated hamsters (53.3 ± 0.9, 10 ± 1.2, and 36.7 ± 0.9 for immature, dead, and mature eggs, respectively). All these results were statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). This discrepancy could be easily attributed to species (S. haematobium), female sex-related different susceptibilities, and potential host-specific response (mice vs. hamster).
Although more reduction rate was reported by Fahmy et al. , they concluded that administration of MQ at a dose of 400 mg/kg at day 35 after infection caused complete disappearance of all immature and mature ova.
Administration of PZQ resulted in highly significant reduction in immature (25.10 ± 2.02) and mature (39.8 ± 6.56) stages of eggs with subsequently an increase in the number of dead eggs (35.1 ± 5.95) (P < 0.001). These results were in line with Erko et al. , who reported that the egg reduction rate was 68.2% following administration of PZQ at a single dose of 40 mg/kg.
The results revealed that EP treatment showed significant reduction in immature (30.90 ± 3.57) and mature (20.60 ± 4.47) stages of eggs with subsequently an increase in the number of dead eggs (48.50 ± 6.31) (P < 0.001). These significant results might be attributed to antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of EP .
Regarding the histopathological results, there was a highly significant difference recorded between S. mansoni-infected mice treated with MQ and infected control with reduction of hepatic granulomas diameter by 69% and numbers by 71% (P < 0.001). On the contrary, examination of hepatic sections obtained from PZQ treated group showed that there was a highly significant difference recorded with reduction of hepatic granuloma diameter by 65% and numbers by 42% (P < 0.001).
Our results were in line with Abdel-Fattah and Ahmed  who reported that the histopathological examination of liver sections of mice treated with MQ containing regimens showed no schistosomal granulomas, and only mild portal tract infiltration was seen, whereas in PZQ monotherapy, granulomas were of cellular nature and significantly less in number. The reduction rate of the granuloma number was 90%; however, the reduction rate in the mean granuloma size was 53% (P < 0.05). These findings could be attributed to the elimination of adult worms by PZQ therapy and consequent stopping eggs deposition and diminution of sustained eggs immunopathology .
In the current study, examination of hepatic sections obtained from EP treated group showed that there was a significant reduction of the hepatic granulomas diameter by 48% and numbers by 29% in comparison with control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, combined EP and MQ resulted in more reduction in the hepatic granulomas diameter by 91% and the number by 85% (P < 0.001). In addition, combined regimen of EP with PZQ revealed that a highly significant reduction of hepatic granulomas diameter and number. The reduction was 67 and 63%, respectively (P < 0.001). The reduction in size of granuloma caused by EP could be attributed to the anti-inflammatory effects proven for EP and to its suppressor effects on the immune response . EP extract stimulates the phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system .
Regarding SEM results, the current work observed that schistosomes recovered from treated mice with PZQ showed variable degree of tegumental damage in the form of loss of intertubercular ridges with surface blebbing and vesicles formation associated with rupture of many tubercles and vaculation with flattening of spines. These results were in agreements with Deribew and Petros , who documented that PZQ caused a disruption of the worm's outer surface after exposure.
Tegumental alterations observed were in the form of loss of intertubercular ridges, loss of spines, severe corrugation, and furrowing in male, whereas in female, poring and cracking of the surface in addition to blebbing were seen in adult schistosomes recovered in MQ treated group. These results were similar to that reported by Manneck et al. . They reported a single oral dose of MQ (400 mg/kg) to S. mansoni-infected mice caused localized blebbing on the tegument appeared after one day and became more severe 3 days after treatment, particularly in female worms. Recent study was performed to evaluate the in-vivo effect of MQ on S. haematobium-infected hamster. The tegument was swollen in some parts and flattened in other parts with loss of the tubercles, shrinking, scattered blebbing, and furrowing. MQ effect on schistosome's tegument was more prominent in treated adults than in juvenile worm . Manneck et al.  documented shrinkage and swelling of the tegument in female worms, and numerous blebbing and loss of spines, fissuring, and pores were also seen. Moreover, Selem and Eraky  observed different tegumental changes including flattened spines, shrinking, corrugation, unfolding, and widening of gynecophoric canal with extensive sloughing and disintegration of the tegument.
Regarding the antischistosomal effects of EP, the tegumental changes observed from adult schistosomes showed variable degree of damage in the form of flattening of tubercles, loss of spines, loss of intertubercular ridges, blebbing, and sloughing of the tegument. Similar effects were recorded in Trypanosoma and Leishmania parasites, and these effects were attributed to the anti-inflammatory effect of Echinacea, which negatively affects the proliferation by killing the parasites, which could be explained either by stimulation of apoptosis or necrosis .
The schistosomicidal action of PZQ could be explained by that, the damage caused to Schistosoma tegument may lower the ability of S. mansoni to evade the immune response by increasing the exposure of parasite antigens at the worm surface and disrupting the parasite masking coat of host antigen . This mechanism of action could be applied also on EP which resulted in pronounced tegumental damage allowing the host immune response to kill the parasite.
In conclusion, MQ treatment had effective schistosomicidal properties through reduction of worm burden and tissue egg load. Moreover, MQ largely alleviated schistosomal hepatic pathology. In addition, it clearly reduces the liver granuloma size with some degree of improvement in the status of the liver. So, MQ is a promising treatment that could be used for development of new anti-Schistosoma drugs. Furthermore, the present findings proved that EP extract showed promising antischistosomal properties presented by its therapeutic effect on the parasitological parameters of the S. mansoni-infected mice especially with combination with MQ. It is recommended to perform further studies to examine the exact mechanism of action of EP on S. mansoni and to study its effect on other parasitic infections.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Cardoso LS, Barreto Ade S, Fernandes JS, Oliveira RR, de Souza Rda P, Carvalho EM, Araujo MI. Impaired lymphocyte profile in schistosomiasis patients with periportal fibrosis. Clin Dev Immunol 2013; 18
El Ridi R, Tallima H, Dalton JP, Donnelly S. Induction of protective immune responses against schistosomiasis using functionally active cysteine peptidases. Front Genet 2014 8
Kadry SM, Mohamed AM, Farrag EM, Dalia B, Fayed DB. Influence of some micronutrients and Citharexylum quadrangular
extract against liver fibrosis in Schistosoma mansoni
infected mice. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2013; 7
Zhang S, Coultas KA. Identification of Plumbagin
as effective chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of schistosomiasis. Int J Parasitol Drug Resist 2013; 3
Keiser J, Chollet J, Xiao SH, Mei JY, Jiao PY, Utzinger J, et al
. Mefloquine an amino-alcohol with promising antischistosomal properties in mice. PloS Negl Trop Dis 2009; 3
Xiao SH, Mei JY, Jiao PY. Effect of mefloquine administered orally at single, multiple or combined with artemether, artesunate or praziquantel in treatment of mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum
. Parasitol Res 2011; 108
Cioli D, Pica-Mattoccia L, Basso A, Guidi A. Schistosomiasis control: praziquantel forever? Mol Biochem Parasit 2014; 195
Van Nassauw L, Toovey S, van OP, den Bosch J, Timmermans JP, Vercruysse J. Schistosomicidal activity of the antimalarial drug, mefloquine, in Schistosoma mansoni
-infected mice. Travel Med Infect Dis 2008; 6
Ingram K, Ellis W, Keiser J. Antischistosomal activities of mefloquine-related arylmethanols. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012; 56
Castelli F, Odolini S, Autino B, Foca E, Russo R. Malaria prophylaxis: a comprehensive review. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2011;3
Tonuci LRS, Melo NI de, Dias HJ, et al
schistosomicidal effects of the essential oil of Tageteserecta
. Rev Bras Farmacogn 2012; 22
Matos-Rocha TJ, dos Santos Cavalcanti MG, Barbosa-Filho JM, et al
. In- vitro
evaluation of schistosomicidal activity of essential oil of Menthaxvillosa
and some of its chemical constituents in adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni
. Planta Med 2013; 79
Esperandim VR, da Silva Ferreira D, Sousa Rezende KC, et al
antiparasitic activity and chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the fruits of Piper cubeba
. Planta Med 2013; 79
Morais ER, Oliveira KC, Magalhães LG, Moreira EBC, Verjovski-Almeida S, Rodrigues V. Effects of curcumin
on the parasite Schistosoma mansoni
: a transcriptomic approach. Mol Biochem Parasitol 2013; 187:91–97.
Miranda MA, Magalhães LG, Tiossi RFJ, et al
. Evaluation of the schistosomicidal activity of the steroidal alkaloids from Solanum lycocarpum
fruits. Parasitol Res 2012; 111
Manayi A, Vazirian M, Saeidnia S. Echinacea purpurea
: pharmacology, photochemistry and analysis methods Pharmacogn Rev 2015; 9
Barnes J, Anderson LA, Gibbons S, Phillipson JD. Echinacea
species (Echinacea angustifolia
(DC.) Hell, Echinacea pallida
(Nutt.) Nutt, Echinacea purpurea
(L.) Moench): A review of their chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties". J Pharm Pharmacol 2005; 57
Liang YS, Bruce JI, Boyd DA. Laboratory cultivation of schistosome vector snails and maintenance of schistosome life cycles. Proc First Sino-Am Symp 1987; 1
Seif El-Din SH. Evaluation of concerted usage of antioxidants and praziquantel in treatment of Schistosoma mansoni
infected mice. Master Thesis dissertation (Zoology Department), Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University. 2003.
Xiao SH, Mei JY, Jiao PY. Further study on mefloquine concerning several aspects in experimental treatment of mice and hamsters infected with Schistosoma japonicum
. Parasitol Res 2009a; 106
Zitkevicius V, Smalinskiene A, Savickiene N, et al
. Assessment of the effect of Echinacea purpurea
extract on the accumulation of cadmium in liver and kidney: apoptotic – mitotic activity of liver cells. JMPR 2011; 5
Duvall RH, Dewitt WB. An improved perfusion technique for recovering adult schistosomes from laboratory animals. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1967; 16
Tendler M, Pinto RM, Oliveira Lima A, Gebara G, Katz N. Schistosoma mansoni
vaccination with adult worm antigens. Int J Parasitol 1986; 16
Kamel IA, Cheever AW, Elwi AM, Mosimann A. Worm burden and tissue egg load in mice infected with PZQ-sensitive (CD) and – insensitive (EE10). Trop Med Hyg 1977; 26
Cheever AW. Conditions affecting the accuracy of potassium hydroxide digestion techniques for counting Schistosoma mansoni
eggs in tissues. Bull World Health Organ 1968; 39
Pellegrino J, Oliveria CA, Faria J, Cunhan A. New approach to the screening of drugs in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni
in mice. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1962; 11
Von Lichtenberg FC. Host response to eggs of S. mansoni
granuloma formation in the sensitized laboratory mouse. Am J Pathol 1962; 41
Hassan MM, El-motaiem M, Afifi H, Abaza B, El-Shafei M, Massoud AM. In-vitro
effect of Mirazid on Schistosoma mansoni
worms. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2003; 33
Santos J, Gouveia MJ, Vale N, de Lurdes Delgado M, Gonçalves A, da Silva JM, et al
. Urinary estrogen metabolites and self-reported infertility in women infected with Schistosoma haematobium
. PloS One 2014; 9
Patocka N, Sharma N, Rashid M, Ribeiro P. Serotonin signaling in Schistosoma mansoni
: a serotonin activated G protein coupled receptor controls parasite movement. PloS Pathog 2014; 10
Eraky MA, El-Badawi RM, Hammam OA. Evaluation of early efficacy of mefloquine on Egyptian S. mansoni
strain on infected mice. Egypt J Med Sci 2010; 31
Xiao S, Xue J, Zhang H. Further studies on mefloquine and praziquantel alone or interaction of both drugs against Schistosoma japonicum in vitro
. Parasitol Res 2012; 110
Abdel-Fattah NS, Ahmed NS. Evaluation of mefloquine–praziquantel combination therapy in prepatent and patent Schistosoma mansoni
infection in mice. SciParasitol 2011; 12
El-Lakkany NM, el-Din SHS, Sabra AA, Hammam OA. Pharmacodynamics of mefloquine and praziquantel combination therapy in mice harboring juvenile and adult Schistosoma mansoni
. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2011; 106
Selem RF, Eraky MA. Assessment of mefloquine in-vivo
efficacy on juvenile and adult stages of Schistosoma haematobium
(Egyptian strain) Parasitologists United Journal 2015; 8
Rabia I, Nagy F, Aly E, Mohamed A, El-Assal F, El-Amir A. Effect of treatment with antifibrotic drugs in combination with PZQ in immunized Schistosoma mansoni
infected murine model. J Am Sci 2010; 6
Canlas J, Hudson JB, Sharma M, Nandan D. Echinacea
and trypanosomatid parasite interactions: growth-inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects of Echinacea
. Pharm Biol 2010; 8
Farrag E, Maghraby A, Foda DS. Chemoprophylactic effect of selenium and vitamin E against Schistosoma mansoni
infected mice. Egypt Pharm J 2005; 4
Fahmy SR, Rabia I, Mansour EM. The potential role of mefloquine against Schistosoma mansoni
infection by prohibition of hepatic oxidative stress in mice. J Basic ApplZool 2014; 67
Botros S, William S, Ebeid F, Cioli D, Katz N, Day TA, Bennett JL. Lack of evidence for an antischistosomal activity of myrrh in experimental animals. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004; 71
Erko B, Degarege A, Tadesse K, Mathiwos A, Legesse M. Efficacy and side effects of praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosomiasis mansoni
in schoolchildren in SheshaKekele Elementary School, Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012; 2
Guiotto P, Woelkart K, Grabnar I, Voinovich D, Perissutti B, Invernizzi S, Granzotto M, Bauer R. Pharmacokinetics and immunomodulatory effects of phytotherapeutic lozenges (bonbons) with Echinacea purpurea
extract. Phytomedicine 2008; 15
Pearce EJ. Priming of the immune response by schistosome eggs. Parasite Immunol 2005; 27
Deribew K, Petros B. Efficacy of praziquantel for the treatment of schistosomiasis in Ethiopia. Int J Med Sci 2013; 5
Manneck T, Haggenmüller Y, Keiser J. Morphological effects and tegumental alterations induced by mefloquine on schistosomula and adult flukes of Schistosoma mansoni
. Parasitol 2009; 137
Selem RFM, Eraky MA. In-vitro
study of mefloquine schistosomicidal properties on Schistosoma haematobium
immature stage. Egypt J Med Sci 2011; 32
Fitzsimmons CM, Joseph S, Jones FM, Reimert CM, Hoffmann KF, Kazibwe F. Chemotherapy of schistosomiasis in Ugandan fisher men: Treatment can cause a rapid increase in Interleukin-5 levels in plasma but decreased level of eosinophilia and worm specific immunoglobulin E. Am Soc Mic 2004; 72
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]