Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 468

Hydrops fetalis: our experience in a rural setting

Department of Paediatrics, Al-Kindy College of Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq

Date of Submission23-Jun-2016
Date of Acceptance12-Jul-2016
Date of Web Publication18-Oct-2016

Correspondence Address:
Mahmood D Al-Mendalawi
Baghdad Post Office, PO Box 55302, Baghdad, 1111
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1110-2098.192407

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Al-Mendalawi MD. Hydrops fetalis: our experience in a rural setting. Menoufia Med J 2016;29:468

How to cite this URL:
Al-Mendalawi MD. Hydrops fetalis: our experience in a rural setting. Menoufia Med J [serial online] 2016 [cited 2023 Oct 3];29:468. Available from: http://www.mmj.eg.net/text.asp?2016/29/2/468/192407

With reference to the interesting case report by Aliyu [1], I do agree with the author that nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) is increasingly considered on the expense of immune hydrops fetalis due to the greater awareness among the general public and medical personnel on Rh alloimmunization, advance in detection and diagnosis, and administration of anti-D to Rh-negative pregnant women. In fact, the issue of NIHF has been extensively studied worldwide. Importantly, NIHF, due to causes other than Rh alloimmunization, is the cause in more than 85% of all affected individuals [2]. A recently published systematic literature review, using all publications between 2007 and 2013, has addressed 14 classification groups based on the cause of NIHF (% of the total group): cardiovascular (20.1%), hematologic (9.3%), chromosomal (9.0%), syndromic (5.5%), lymphatic dysplasia (15.0%), inborn errors of metabolism (1.3%), infections (7.0%), thoracic (2.3%), urinary tract malformations (0.9%), extrathoracic tumors (0.7%), placental (4.1%), gastrointestinal (1.3%), miscellaneous (3.6%), and idiopathic (19.8%) [2]. Published data from Nigeria pointed out that fetal cardiac anomalies are the most common cause of NIHF followed by chromosomal anomalies [3]. I agree with the author in the assumption that cyanotic congenital heart disease ought to be considered in the case in question. It is worthy to mention that fetal arrhythmias are detected in at least 2% of the unselected pregnancies during routine obstetrical scans. Most common are transient, brief episodes of a slow or fast heart rate or of an irregular heart rhythm. Less common are prolonged or persistent abnormalities such as supraventricular tachycardia and complete heart block, which may lead to low cardiac output, fetal hydrops, and death [4]. I, therefore, presume that nonstructural cardiac etiology in terms of fetal arrhythmia ought to be considered in the case in question. Unfortunately, the lack of proper antenatal care visits for the mother and nonconduction of chest radiograph, ECG, and echocardiography for the neonate after birth and autopsy after the neonate has succumbed have rendered futile the identification of the exact etiology of NIHP in the case in question.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Aliyu I. Hydrops fetalis: our experience in a rural setting. Menoufia Med J 2016; 29:177–178.  Back to cited text no. 1
  Medknow Journal  
Bellini C, Donarini G, Paladini D, Calevo MG, Bellini T, Ramenghi LA, et al. Etiology of non-immune hydrops fetalis: an update. Am J Med Genet A 2015; 167A: 1082–1088.  Back to cited text no. 2
Okeke TC, Egbugara MN, Ezenyeaku CC, Ikeako LC. Non-immune hydrops fetalis. Niger J Med 2013; 22:266–273.  Back to cited text no. 3
Weber R, Stambach D, Jaeggi E. Diagnosis and management of common fetal arrhythmias. J Saudi Heart Assoc 2011; 23: 61–66.  Back to cited text no. 4


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded84    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal