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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 884-890

Effects of diabetes mellitus on the eye

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt
2 Ophthalmology Hospital, Shibin El-Kom, Menoufia, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Safinaz F Omran
Ophthalmology Hospital, Shebein El-Kom, Menoufia, 32511
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1110-2098.173608

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Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the ocular manifestations of diabetes and follow-up the results of treatment. Background Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of blindness in the USA and the leading cause of new blindness in working-aged Americans. Diabetic retinopathy alone accounts for at least 12% of new cases of blindness each year in the USA. Individuals with diabetes are at 25 times greater risk for blindness compared with the general population. The estimated annual incidence of new cases of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema are 65 000 and 75 000, respectively. Over a lifetime, 70% of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus develop proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 40% of patients develop macular edema. Both complications, if untreated, frequently lead to serious visual loss and disability. Patients and methods A total of 200 eyes of 100 diabetic patients (58 male and 42 female patients) were included in the study. Of them, 15 patients had type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and 85 patients had type II (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. The mean duration of diabetes in the groups was 11.78 ± 5.28 years, with a maximum of 22 years. Complete ophthalmic examination was performed for all patients. Informed consent was obtained from all participants, to ensure voluntary participation in the study. Results The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 represented diabetic patients with different stages of diabetic retinopathy and other eye manifestations. It comprised 152 eyes of 76 diabetic patients with established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Group 2 represented diabetic patients with normal fundus and comprised 48 eyes of 24 diabetic patients with established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Conclusion Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common causes of visual loss in adults; therefore, the earlier the diagnosis, the better the management.

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