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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 718-724

Hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: epidemiological and histopathological properties

1 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebin El Kom, Egypt
2 Pathology Department, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Shebin El Kom, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Dina M Sweed
Pathology Department, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, 32511 Shebin El Kom
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1110-2098.167895

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Objectives To study the epidemiological and pathological properties of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases eligible for surgical resection. Background HCC is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer death. In Egypt, liver cancer forms 1.68% of the total malignancies. HCC constitutes 70.48% of all liver tumors among Egyptians. HCC represents the main complication of cirrhosis. Materials and methods This longitudinal study included 92 HCC patients who had undergone surgical intervention. Clinical and demographic data were collected from medical records, and paraffin blocks were retrieved from the Archives of the Pathology Department, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, during the period between March 2007 and October 2014. Results revealed that 51.1% of the studied HCC patients were at least 58 years old, 81.5% male and 18.5% female, 51.2% of the patients had an a-fetoprotein level of at least 200 ng/ml and 95.7% were positive for hepatitis viral infection. Revision of the pathological data revealed that 82.6% of the HCC cases presented as a single focal lesion with a median size of 5 cm. About 76.1% were on top of a cirrhotic liver and 44.5% showed dysplastic changes and 96.7% of the cases were of the classic type. About 57.6% of the cases presented with stage T1 and 34.8% of the cases had lymphovascular invasion. Conclusion On the basis of 92 surgical specimens of HCC, most of the HCC in Egypt occurred in men who developed a cirrhotic liver due to HCV infection. Epidemiological and histopathological data of HCC highlight the importance of an integrated strategy for the prevention and the treatment of viral hepatitis infections and chronic liver disease.

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