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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 8-13

Immunotherapy for advanced bladder cancer: a new era

Department of Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine-Menoufiya University, Menoufia, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Eman Helmy Desoky
8- El Teraa Street, Sector-2, Birket EL Saba City, Menoufiagovernate, 32717
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mmj.mmj_768_17

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Objectives The aim of this study was to analyze data and current trends in immune checkpoint targeting therapy for bladder cancer. Data sources A systematic literature search was performed for clinical trials in the Medline databases (Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane, http://www.ekb.eg) and all materials available in the Internet from 2014 up to 2017 according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Study selection The initial search yielded 35 articles, of which 30 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The articles studied the role of Immune checkpoint targeting therapy in bladder cancer. Data extraction If the studies did not fulfill the inclusion criteria, they were excluded. Study quality assessment included whether ethical approval was obtained, eligibility criteria specified, appropriate controls, adequate information, and defined assessment measures. Data synthesis Comparisons were made by structured review, with the results tabulated. Findings Humanized monoclonal antibodies that block CTLA-4 (ipilimumab, tremelimumab), PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), or PD-L1 (atezolizumab, durvalumab, avelumab) have all shown antitumor activity in patients with urothelial carcinoma (UC). Atezolizumab and nivolumab are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for second-line therapy for advanced UC and a number of other checkpoint inhibitors are in clinical trials. Conclusion Immunotherapy for UC remains a promising and active area of research; intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin has been used as a form of immunotherapy in nonmuscle invasive disease. Also, numerous agents, particularly the monoclonal antibodies targeting checkpoint inhibition pathways, are showing encouraging signs of clinical activity.

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