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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 354-364

Assessment of Echinacea purpurea andmefloquinein treatment of Schistosoma mansoni


1 Medical Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt
2 Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Ahmed S Mahdy
Medical Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mmj.mmj_96_16

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Objective To assess the effectofcombined Echinacea purpurea(EP) and mefloquine(MQ) in the treatment of experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection. Background Schistosomiasis is a prevalent parasitic disease in tropical and subtropical areascausedby the flatworm S.mansoni. Several medications are used in the treatment of schistosomiasis. Praziquantel(PZQ) is the drug of choice because of its safety and broad-spectrum activity. Materials and methods The current study was carried out on 120 laboratory-bred Swiss albino female mice. They were classified into six groups: groupI(control), groupII(PZQ treated), groupIII(MQ treated), groupIV(EP treated), groupV(PZQ and EP), and groupVI(MQ and EP). Evaluation was done parasitologically using the worm count technique, ova count technique in intestine and liver, and oogram pattern and histopathological examination of liver sections for assessment of granuloma size and diameter. Moreover, electron microscopic changes of the adult worms were evaluated. Results The highest worm burden reduction of male(79.41%), female(82.28%), couples(86.6%), and total(92%) worms was obtained in the combined MQ and EP treated group. The highest reduction in the mean number of ova count/g tissue in either the intestine(93%) or the liver(89%) was detected in MQ and EP treated group. In combined treated groups, the highest percentage of reduction in the immature and mature eggs was detected in the groupMQ and EP; it was 9.16±4.11 and 5.25±2.56, respectively. Moreover, there was an increase in the percentage of dead eggs(85.58±6.43). The highest reductions in hepatic granuloma diameter and number were seen in the combination of MQ and EP at 67 and 85%, respectively(P<0.001). The scanning electron microscopy examination revealed that the tegument of male worms recovered from MQ-treated mice showed loss of spines, severe corrugation, and extensive blebbing, whereas the tegument of the adult males recovered from mice treated with EP showed flattening of tubercles, loss of spines, and extensive blebbing with start of sloughing. Conclusion MQ has effective schistosomicidal properties through reduction of worm burden and tissue egg load. Moreover, EP extract showed promising antischistosomal activity on S.mansoni-infected mice. It is recommended to study the exact mechanism of action of EP on S.mansoni and its possible effects on other parasitic infections.


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