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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 34-38

Disruptive behavior disorders among basic-learning schoolchildren at Quweisna District, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt (2014/2015)


1 Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt
2 Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt

Date of Submission13-Feb-2016
Date of Acceptance26-Apr-2016
Date of Web Publication25-Jul-2017

Correspondence Address:
Safa H Al Kalash
Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia 32511
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mmj.mmj_90_16

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  Abstract 


Background
Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are psychiatric disorders of children and adolescents, including oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). It is associated with an increased risk for negative developmental outcomes including substance abuse, school problems, and antisocial or criminal violence.
Objective
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of DBDs among basic-learning schoolchildren in Quweisna District, Menoufia Governorate, its types, and its risk factors.
Participants and methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 348 basic-learning schoolchildren and their parents, as well as their teachers. Children were subjected to mini-kids interview for diagnosis of DBDs and then 'Parenting Manner Scale' for the detection of parenting style. Parents and teachers rated the child's behavior at home and school, respectively, during the past 6 months. Parents were subjected to the socioeconomic status scale.
Results
Prevalence of DBDs was 14.9%. The prevalence of ODD and CD was 8 and 6.9%, respectively. Mean age was significantly lower among patients (11.69 ± 1.6), with male sex predominance (69.2%). Low socioeconomic level (67.3%), interparental conflicts (36.5%), single parent (51.9%), and family history of neuropsychiatric disorders (65.4%) were significantly higher among cases. Overprotection (28.8 and 28.8%), discrimination between siblings (28.8 and 28.8%), and authoritarian parenting styles (17.3 and 19.2%), were significantly more prevalent among cases.
Conclusion
Prevalence of DBDs among basic-learning schoolchildren in Quweisna District, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt, was 14.9%. Its types were ODD and CD represented by 8 and 6.9%, respectively. Risk factors for DBDs among the studied group were low socioeconomic status, low parental education, father smoking, parental conflicts, family history of neuropsychiatric disorders, and bad parental styles among fathers and mothers (overprotection, discrimination, authoritarian, and hesitancy).

Keywords: basic-learning schools, conduct disorders, disruptive behavior disorders, oppositional defiant disorder


How to cite this article:
Farahat TM, AlKot MM, Khalil NA, Saleh EG, Al Kalash SH. Disruptive behavior disorders among basic-learning schoolchildren at Quweisna District, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt (2014/2015). Menoufia Med J 2017;30:34-8

How to cite this URL:
Farahat TM, AlKot MM, Khalil NA, Saleh EG, Al Kalash SH. Disruptive behavior disorders among basic-learning schoolchildren at Quweisna District, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt (2014/2015). Menoufia Med J [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Apr 25];30:34-8. Available from: http://www.mmj.eg.net/text.asp?2017/30/1/34/211533




  Introduction Top


Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are a group of the most common forms of child psychopathology with serious long-term consequences. DBDs have many subtypes such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), which has an estimated worldwide prevalence of 3.3 and 3.2%, respectively [1]. ODDs according to diagnostic and statistical manual-IV criteria are characterized by a recurring pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient, and hostile behavior against authority figures [2]. CD is a wide range of age-inappropriate actions and attitudes of a child that violate family expectations, societal norms, and personal rights such as serious violation of laws, aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, and deceitfulness or theft [3].

Behaviors involved in ODD and CD are exhibited in a variety of settings (at home, at school, and in social situations) and have an impact on the child's psychological development [4]. DBDs are associated with an increased risk for a wide range of negative developmental outcomes including substance abuse, school problems, delinquency, and antisocial behavior or criminal violence. Although many of these problems persist into adulthood with high economic costs [5], there is a great shortage of researches dealing with DBDs among basic-learning schoolchildren. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of DBDs among basic-learning schoolchildren in Quweisna District, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt.


  Participants and Methods Top


Design

The study is a cross-sectional comparative study conducted during the academic year 2014/2015 on basic-learning schoolchildren at Quweisna District, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt.

Ethical approval

The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University. Informed consent was obtained from parents and teachers of the studied children after simple clarification of the study aim and methodology.

Participants

Sample size was calculated based on the lowest and highest prevalence of DBDs from the previous literature and population size, which was calculated as follows:



Where N is the required sample size; t is the confidence level at 95% (standard value of 1.96); P is the estimated prevalence of DBDs; m is the margin of error at 5% (standard value of 0.05).

Sample size = N / [1 + (N/Population)]

The sample size required for this study was estimated by assuming a confidence interval of 95 and 5% SE. The lowest and highest prevalences were 3.04 and 19.5%, respectively. Accordingly, the sample size required for this study was 348 students, in addition to their parents (N = 348) and teachers (N = 18).

Two basic-learning schools were selected randomly from urban and rural areas in Quweisna District. Children were randomly selected from each school to represent different strata, and the sample was proportionally allocated according to the total number of children in each school.

Methods

Children were invited after their parents' consent to fill the mini-kids international neuropsychiatric interview [6] for detecting those having DBDs. In addition, they were subjected to parenting manner scale [7] for the detection of parenting style through the child's point of view. Children were divided into the DBD group as cases and the non-DBD group as controls to study different risk factors.

Parents were invited to fill a revised form of behavior problem checklist [8] of their children at home during the past 6 months to diagnose DBDs. In addition, parents were subjected to 'the socioeconomic status scale' [9]. They were asked about medical, neuropsychiatric, perinatal, developmental, and social history, including any marital conflicts, and substance abuse, including nicotine smoking, of their children to detect any organic diseases and exclude those having any other psychiatric or neurological disorders such as epilepsy.

Teachers were asked to fill a revised behavior problem checklist for the teacher [8] to confirm the diagnosis of DBDs according to behavior of the children at school during the past 6 months.

Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed using statistical package of social sciences software program, version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). Data were expressed in two ways:

Descriptive

  1. Mean value and (SD) for quantitative data
  2. Frequency and percentage for qualitative data


Analytic

  1. t-Test for comparison of two independent quantitative variables that are normally distributed
  2. U-test (Mann–Whitney test) for comparison of two independent quantitative variables that are not normally distributed
  3. c2-Test for comparison between two independent qualitative variables that are normally distributed.



  Results Top


Prevalence of DBDs was 14.9%. ODD and CD were 8 and 6.9% of cases, respectively [Figure 1]. Mean age was significantly lower among patients (11.69 ± 1.6), with male sex predominance (69.2%). Low socioeconomic level (67.3%), interparental conflicts (36.5%), single parent (51.9%), and family history of neuropsychiatric disorders (65.4%) were significantly higher among cases than among controls [Table 1]. Overprotection (28.8 and 28.8%), discrimination between siblings (28.8 and 28.8%), and authoritarian parenting styles (17.3 and 19.2%), respectively, were significantly higher among cases than among controls [Table 2]. The significant risk for prediction of DBDs was single-parent family followed by middle and low socioeconomic status [odds ratio (OR) were 16.5 and 3.4, respectively] [Table 3].
Figure 1: Prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders and its subtypes among basic schoolchildren at Quweisna District, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt 2014/2015.

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Table 1 Risk factors for disruptive behavior disorders among basic-learning schoolchildren at Quweisna District, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt

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Table 2 Parenting styles of each parent as a risk factor for disruptive behavior disorders: among the participants

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Table 3 Logistic regression analysis for predictors of disruptive behavioral disorders among the participants

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  Discussion Top


This study showed that the prevalence of DBDs among basic-learning schoolchildren was 14.9%. ODD and CD represented 8 and 6.9% of cases, respectively. Prevalence of CD was in agreement with an Egyptian study and showed a prevalence of 6.6% [10]. In addition, the prevalence of ODD was in agreement with a Spanish study, which showed a prevalence of 6.9% [11]. In this study, DBDs were significantly higher among boys than among girls (89.5% vs. 10.5% in CD and 60.7% vs. 39.3% in ODD, respectively), which is in agreement with a Palestinian study that showed a higher prevalence of CD among boys (6–16%) than among girls (2–9%) [12]. In addition, another Spanish study showed a higher prevalence of ODD and CD in males (5 and 8.6%) than among females (2.8 and 5.8%) [13]. In the current study, DBDs were significantly higher among children with low socioeconomic status (67.3%), which is in agreement with an American study that clarified that behavioral problems were more common among children of low socioeconomic level [14]. This study found that parental educational level of cases was significantly lower than that of the controls, and this is in agreement with an American study that found that low paternal education was associated with DBDs among their children [15]. The current study showed that paternal nicotine smoking was statistically higher among the case group (63.5%) compared with the control group (30.4%), and this is in agreement with a case–control Egyptian study that showed that 40% of children exposed to second-hand smoke had CD compared with 13.3% in the control group [16].

The study showed that marital conflict between parents was statistically significantly higher among cases (36.5%) than among controls (22%), and this result approximates that of an Iranian study that revealed that the prevalence of CD among students of predisrupted families and separated parents was significantly higher than students having intact families [17]. The present study denoted that DBDs were significantly higher among children with single-parent families (51.9%), and this result is in concordance with that of a Romanian study, which revealed that children in single-parent families have a high rate of DBDs compared with those with intact families [18]. The study showed that parental authoritarian style (28.8% of both fathers and mothers; OR: 11.2 and 20.9) and discrimination between siblings (28.8% of both fathers and mothers; OR: 12.9 and 32.8) were significantly higher among cases. These results were supported by studies that demonstrated that children who were exposed to authoritarian parenting style and discrimination were associated with an increased risk of having reactive aggression and DBDs more than their other peers [19],[20].

The current study showed that the most significant risk factors for DBDs were single-parent family (OR: 16.05) followed by middle and low socioeconomic status (OR: 3.4), which is in agreement with a study that concluded that low family socioeconomic status, parental substance abuse, age from middle childhood into adolescence, parental mental illness, single parent, parent–child conflict, and inter-parental conflict had the highest rates of DBD diagnoses.[21]


  Conclusion Top


Prevalence of DBDs among basic-learning schoolchildren in Quweisna District, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt, was 14.9% where ODD and CD represented 8 and 6.9% of the cases, respectively. Risk factors were young age, male sex (OR: 1.56), low socioeconomic status (OR: 3.4), single-parent (OR: 16.5) family, low parental educations (OR: 1.07 and 2.9) of fathers and mothers, respectively, smoking of the fathers (OR: 1.4), marital conflict (OR: 1.3), family history of psychiatric disorders (OR: 1.6), and bad parenting styles among fathers and mothers, respectively [overprotection (OR: 49.4 and 22.2), discrimination (OR: 12.9 and 32.8), authoritarian (OR: 11.2 and 20.9), and hesitancy (OR: 8.8 and 28.7)], which must be screened for early detection and management of behavioral disorders among schoolchildren.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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